July 22, 2010

I’ll take bad user experiences for 800

Posted in Musings at 4:30 pm by zhaewry

I’ll take bad user experiences for 800

“This set of user interface changes proves that Linden Lab is still totally incapable of understanding decent interface Design.”

“What is The Second Life Viewer 2.1?”

“That is correct.”

So, because I’m well, stubborn, I just downloaded the current official viewer 2.1 client to play with. I’ve blogged at length about what I think needs to be fixed in 2.0 I had hoped that one of the clear messages in that post was that the 2.0 approach of making people click more to do the same things is bad.  I also hoped that “the sidebar is way overloaded and way too modal” message was pretty clear.

So, I hop into 2.1, and decide that I want to take off an attachment. My usual path to such (in both Emerald and 2.0) involves going to where the “worn” stuff is. (and in 1.23, I do the hack of searching on “(worn” in inventory to find same.) 2.1 makes you do one extra click to get to the currently worn stuff in the sidebar, as simply clicking on my appearance takes you to the shared “outfits/my appearance” view of the sidebar.

Once in your current outfit the right click choices have vanished. You can no longer detach an item or look at its properties or do anything useful. You can do one thing and one thing only. “edit outfit”

So, you click edit outfit, and two things happen. One you spin like you had clicked appearance. That’s annoying and not necessary if I’m changing my shoes. Really, it isn’t.

Much worse, you are dropped into a hellish nest of additional clicking. You now see clothing, attachments and body parts. Your nice little list of worn items is now hidden in tabs which have very little do with getting your avatar clothed, and everything to do with how the application is written. Typical SL shoes consist of a set of attachments and a foot shaper. Are they grouped? no, they are split. If your outfit has shoes, socks, and a foot shaper, three bits on three subtabs.

So, I go clicking off into this swamp. Fine, I have found it. Ugly as all sin, but the prim is off. So, lets see. How many clicks is this? I’ve lost track. During which time, I can’t look at friends, can’t look at landmarks, can’t look at profiles, can’t search, can’t um. interact with the world, because the interface is MODAL

The contrast to 1.23, or Emerald is staggering. In Emerald I go ctrl-i (or click inventory) select “worn” and right click and detach. My avatar doesn’t spin. I don’t get a maze of sub menus and I don’t lose access to 90% of the function of the user interface.  In 1.23 i find my worn stuff by searching “(worn” which is one tick slower, but still infinitely better than this.

Nobody can tell me this is faster, easier or better for anyone, new or old. Making tasks more and more complex is just plain stupid. Adding clicks is stupid. Adding clicks and menus and tabs and making the nested modal swamp deeper is the opposite of delightful interface.

For added fun, click “add more” while you are editing your outfit. Go ahead. I dare you. You wanted a list of random things from your inventory in a sub frame using up  1/2 of the already blocking you from doing anything sidebar. I’m sure you did.

Don’t worry, I’m sure it won’t actually hang your sidebar for a solid minute loading it. Oh. Actually. Um. yeah, It will.

Oh, you put stuff in folders? Well too bad what an idiot you were, we don’t show you folders. We don’t show you stuff in folders, we show you a list of random crap. You think I am kidding. I click “add more” and the fist thing in the list is an item naked, from a folder I setup in 2006. No context, just a freaking item ripped out of my inventory and shoved in a list. it shows about 200 or so random items, none of them recent, and none of them grouped by the folders from my inventory.

The “add more” path is beyond an insult to users. It’s an insult to the content creators who handed you stuff in nice folders with good names.  It’s an insult to anyone who has spent the time to organize their items in a sensible way. It’s an insult to anyone who has used a computer and understands folders.  It is beyond useless, it is actively hostile.

Let me be blunt. Let me make this simple. Until you fix the basics, don’t add new stuff in the same style. The modal nested, click 5 times to do anything style is totally broken. Fix that. Fix it now, and fix it fully. Fix it with help from your users because you’re proving with every code drop of this client that you don’t actually understand your product at all.

Cramming stuff into the sidebar and making people dive into deeper and deeper nooks and crannies of a fixed size, small font information hiding ugly hell is simply appalling. The “add more” button is beyond that. You want people to shop and buy stuff and you then give them a user interface that hides 90% of their inventory and ignores the folders that stuff is put in.

If 2.1 is the answer then the question would appear to be “How can we make the user experience even more appalling than it was in 2.0”


June 25, 2010

Back to the future?

Posted in Musings at 10:09 am by zhaewry

Beyond Micheal J Fox’s charming good looks, the Back to the future movies were built around the idea that its as easy to mess things up as make them better. Mark Kingdon’s been sent packing and Philip Rosedale has returned with the title of Interim CEO, Is this good? Bad? Indifferent?  I expect it will be a mixed bag.

Second life is at a crossroads. Growth has stalled, several initiatives have stalled, and 1/3 of the lab staff got handed walking papers. Growing beyond a niche is hard, and several Virtual Worlds and their associated companies have gone bust in the past year. SecondLife has the advantage of basic profitability, and a user base which, has enthusiasm for the environment, when the lab isn’t busy making their lives difficult.

Philip has remarkable strengths. He has vision, he is charismatic, and he is wicked smart. Above all, he is passionate. .  Philip is also, in part  impractical, a dreamer, easily distracted, and undisciplined. These are, in many ways two sides of the same coin. Creativity and Vision are not enemies of disciplined slogging, but they are rarely close friends either. Whether Philip sorts things out depends a lot on how he parses the basic problems of SecondLife, and how he attacks them.

So.. given this, here are some thoughts on what he should do.

Six things to do:

  1. Start by listening to your customers, and listening hard. Feel free to call them residents, but keep in mind they pay your bills.
  2. Play to your personal strengths, and bring in people who complement them, and bolster your weaknesses
  3. When you look at things like Avatars United, Second Life Enterprise, and other projects which haven’t prospered, look at not the simple fact that they failed, but WHY.
  4. While you are getting the core business sorted out, get someone good asking hard questions about how to monetize things which aren’t land. The Lab has resources it doesn’t monetize, and figuring out how to leverage them is vital.
  5. Keep firmly in mind that Linden Lab is 200 employees and no longer a startup.  If Second Life is to avoid being a niche player, it will have to grow again, and the management team needs to reflect this reality.
  6. You have a huge “technical debt”  Start paying it down. Yes, its painful, but it prevents Second Life from scaling and evolving.  Cleaning up code and architecture isn’t glamorous, but it unblocks progress.

In Detail:


Listening is hard, but vital. If you pay attention (LISTEN) to only one thing, start here.

Listen to what users have been saying for months. Fix search. Fix Group IM, Raise the Group Limit, Do Windlight estate settings, figure out how to allow megaprims in appropriate settings. Listen to your customers about viewer 2.x and tell them you’re supporting 1.23 while you sort it out.

Don’t run off to “fix” things without listening to the residents. When you think you know how to fix something, describe the fix, and then, listen again, to what people say.  Run Serious Betas, and let people play with things early and often, and when they complain, again, Listen. Don’t run a two week beta, fix three bugs and say “We listened.” Start early, share code often and actually allow tester input to influence the end result.

When you listen, actually respond to feedback. Yes, it may take a little longer to complete the process, but Viewer 2.0, and Search have shown very clearly, how badly things go when you build a lot of code and don’t listen to the community as you build them.

Work on saying “yes” to your customers, not “no.” The lab has spent a lot of the past two years telling its customers no. Yes is a better answer. This may mean telling lawyers, technical people and maybe even Phillip Linden to figure out how to make yes possible. Second Life needs some yeses.

Look at what people do to make things happen in second life, and then listen to them about how to make it better. A lot of your customers have figured out how to run big events using voice, web streams, chat bridges and other tools. Listen to them about how they do these events, and why, and then talk to them about how Linden Lab can make this easier. Then go back to them when you think you have answers, and listen when they give you feedback.

Play to your strengths and understand your weaknesses

Operations needs a solid hand, make sure you keep one there. The grid has become massively more stable in the past two years, backslide on that, and everything else is at risk. Take your time when piloting and deploying code. The steady drone of pilot roll, rollback, pilot roll, rollback sends a bad, unnecessary message about diligence in testing.

Put in place a full up CTO. Someone with a solid track record in building distributed systems, and understands scale. Listen to them, and give them enough authority to put some focus on solving the long term technology issues which get in the way of growing out the grid and single region concurrency. Tell them you know there is a deep technical debt in the current code base and support them in paying some of it down.

Get someone who is good at communications. Listen to them. Linden’s PR has been painfully bad and needs to get a lot better. Speak to your residents honestly, speak to them often and work to make that communication a two way street. A brown bag where people vent, but have little or no impact on behavior is not communication. When you hold in world events as part of communications, do a better job. The community has worked out how to hold large events with streams both in world and on the web. Linden should learn from best practices and not just “turn on voice and pray.”

Get someone who understands user experience and let them work closely with the resident community and figure out how to move beyond the current viewer 2 mess. Giving first time users a cleaner, simpler experience is important, but not at the cost of neutering the client in daily use. Defaulting some settings to permit a simple experience for new users, while allowing experienced users to personalize the experience is the way forward here.

Put someone in charge of the challenge of connecting users to exciting experiences on the grid. Make sure they understand why people thrive in SecondLife and how to make those experiences more accessible. Events and shared experiences are the hear of SecondLife. New users should have quick and easy ways of finding new experiences. SecondLife is not a game, but look at using game like rewards to get users to explore the grid, explore shopping, explore events. Add some low key rewards for people when they spend their first 100 lindens, when they attend their first event, when they make friends.

Learn from the failures

Look not just at what projects failed, but why they failed. A core appeal of second life is immersion were projects like Avaline and Avatars United helping, or hurting immersion. A core asset of Second Life is the rich content cloud and rich creator community. Did Second Enterprise tap into the asset cloud, or cut off enterprise users from convenient access to the content and economy on the main grid? A core value of any growing environment is the network effect of connecting users to users. Did Second Life enterprise have any ways of connecting enterprise users to the greater community, or did it hide them away from the core experience.

Retrenching to focus on the core experience is fine, but failing to understand why various project failed will prevent similar projects from going forward successfully in the future.

Second Life is an immersive, creative experience. Linden Lab needs to look at projects which enhance the core strengths of the experience, and recognize the unique nature of a virtual world. Turning the lab’s back on the rest of the web, and on customers beyond the current user base is just as much a recipe for failure as ignoring the current users.

Monetizing beyond land (and business models)

Linden lab has several core assets. The grid itself, and the actual regions are the heart of the service. Revenue from land is both the Lab’s most secure revenue source and biggest challenge. At the end of the day, land rental is value added server space rental and servers get cheaper every year, and margins get thinner every year. Second Life has important assets beyond the grid which are not monetized.

The content cloud, and access to the economy of second life is a huge potential source of revenue. Second Life has some of the richest most innovative content in the internet. Competitors to second life are emerging, and will continue to emerge. Helping make Second Life an internet wide hub of content creation and selling is a huge opportunity. This requires getting beyond the current model of a single monolithic grid and into spaces where Linden Lab is a hub not just for land but other services.

Identity and users are another important asset the lab has consistently ignored. Look at how to allow users to take their digital selves beyond the current SecondLife grid and how the lab can be a hub for identity in other spaces. Don’t couple these opportunities with requiring people to expose a real life identity.  Second Life is as much about coming *to* the virtual world as it is dragging the real world into the virtual spaces, but by the same token, people’s virtual identities are deeply important to them, and they want to “be who they are” in many parts of the web, not just the current grid.

Make “premium” membership meaningful, and make “free” membership less valuable. Free, ready access to the grid is important, but, there is no reason to not put significant limits on what you get for free which encourage people to become premium. Free accounts are important, because they let people quickly enter and explore the world, but look at limiting them so that people are encouraged to become premium memberships. Separate out avatar name from account, and allow people to have alts share premium status. Be careful about privacy when looking at these choices, but recognize how and why people create identities within the grid, and work to provide a model which both helps users do what they want to do, and gives the lab better insight into what customers are doing, and how provide them with real value.

As time goes on, Linden is going to face an every more diverse ecosystem of competitors in its niche. The lab needs to position second life to be part of a growing ecosystem, and to profit from the success of the whole ecosystem, not just the current user base. Sorting out how to monetize all of Linden’s opportunities, not just land sales is a vital part of thriving in a larger web of virtual spaces.

The lab is not a startup

You said it yourself this week. You have been working on parts of Second Life for a decade. Even after laying off 100 people, Linden Lab is larger than most startups. The lab needs to be more focused, and more agile. This does not mean the lab can shoot from the hip. SecondLie Scribe used a wonderful phrase in this panel discussion “Manager of managers.” Its a description of something that is very much not what startups are about, but is what bigger companies need. Look forward for how the lab needs to function in its next decade, not back.  Take the title of “interim CEO” seriously, and find people who can focus on running the company well, so you can focus on Vision and Strategy, and listening to your users.

Most companies don’t get second chances to grow beyond their initial success. Linden Lab may not either. Second Chances are rare. The lab has a passionate but nervous user base.  This is a double edged sword. Passionate advocates can be your best source of ideas, inspiration and  new users. Passionate advocates thwarted and made bitter can be your loudest critics and take their ideas and passion and go elsewhere with them.  Second Life needs to execute less like a startup and more like a nimble successful company.  There are people who have watched what Linden Lab did well, and what Linden Lab did poorly. Unlike the field 10 years ago, there is a lot of technology, there is a large community of developers, users and potential competitors who will be looking to see if they can succeed where Linden Lab has not.

Second Life does not have the excuse of immaturity, or the luxury of obscurity. Customer Service, development, and user outreach need to be professional and serious.  If Linden Lab does not learn from its mistakes and move forward decisively others will, and the challenges to Second Life will grow.

Paying the lab’s technical debt

This is a painfully technical point, but not a trivial one.  Technical Debt is very real and does huge damage to companies and projects which ignore it. Linden Lab has a decade of technical debt. Some of it has been paid down. The changes which have made going from Havok 4 to Havok 7 far less challenging than the move to Havok 4 are a good example. On the whole tho, the phrase “We can’t do that, our code isn’t in a position to do that” is a phrase heard far too often in Linden Lab.

Technical debt has gotten in the way of scaling regions, adding caching to regions, offloading work from regions and breaking the grid into more manageable chunks. Technical debt gets in the way of supporting new business opportunities for the lab, and  slows every type of development. Part of moving beyond a startup mentality is paying down technical debt on a regular basis.

Linden Lab needs to make understanding its technical debt, and planning to pay it down a part of the technical culture. This is part of moving beyond being a startup and becoming a company that can execute efficiently.  Someone at the lab needs to be an advocate for investments which will improve long term scale, long term flexibility and long term stability. The lab needs to position itself to adapt to changes in the world such as mobile devices, and cloud computing. Technical debt gets in the way of business and technical flexibility.  Arcane, rigid code leads to arcane, hard to fix, change and use systems. Users don’t want to know why its so hard for the lab to permit “undelete” of objects, or rollback of a parcel’s state, they want the grid to what they want, in ways which delight them. Paying down technical debt is a vital part of delighting users.

In closing

Second Life is at a very real crossroads.  Linden Lab needs to take serious steps to sort out very real challenger. M was chosen by Phillip, and the board at Linden Lab to lead Second Life beyond where it was in 2007.  Bringing back a founder to a startup is fraught with peril. There were reasons Phillip and the board wanted to bring in a new team, and those reasons haven’t gone away because the team they brought in failed to produce the desired results.

Linden Lab is fortunate to have cash, to have a fairly sustainable business model in the short term. The lab needs to fix serious problems and fix them soon. Second Chances in business are rare, and third chances vanishingly so. Linden Lab needs to figure out how to listen to its customers, make a product they want to keep using and figure out how to grow again.

Second Life still has huge potential, but the longer growth stalls and alternatives mature, the harder the road ahead will become. Linden Lab needs to focus on delighting its current customers and positioning itself to grow beyond the current user base. This is a huge challenge. Philip Rosedale has met a huge challenge in getting Second Life to where it is today. I believe that Philip and Linden Lab can meet the current challenges, but only by being smart, disciplined and willing to Listen and Learn.

June 17, 2010

Challenges of Immersion

Posted in Musings, SecondLife, social at 10:33 am by zhaewry

Challenges of Immersion

A major part of Second Life’s value is immersion.  Second Life is at its most compelling when users fully enter the virtual world as participants engaging the space, not observers visiting it. This is not to revisit the false dichotomy of augmentation and immersion. It is almost impossible to log on to Second Life and not immerse to some degree. The fundamental metaphor is that you are experiencing a place – that you are acting within a world. Rather the point is that, Virtual Worlds are fundamentally different from the “web” and this poses a deep challenge when you want to drive adoption of virtual spaces.

Immersion consists of several facets. Each facet poses challenges for wide scale adoption of the technology. This post is an attempt to explore several facets of the immersive online experience, contrast it with the existing web, and examine the implications for broader adoption of virtual worlds. This post focuses on Second Life, but I think the arguments apply more generally.

Traditional web experiences

The traditional web experience is different from the experience of visiting a virtual world.  The experience is singular, asynchronous and interstitial.  Briefly:


Reading a web page, including most social media web pages is a singular experience. A user reads the page, possibly posts comments on some of its content and moves on. Videos and Songs are equally experienced without reference to other users. It is uncommon for most web sites to expose awareness of other people who are looking at the same web page, let alone provide a way to speak to them directly. A user may be directed to a song, or video from a social media tool, they may comment on it, and they may read their friend’s comments, but they do so in isolation.


Facebook, Twitter, blog comments. Even in purely social media web sites, the pattern of interaction is largely asynchronous. Joe posts a picture on his Facebook wall. Two of his friends comment. A third leaves a link to a funny blog post related to the picture. There is genuine interaction, but it is very asynchronous.  It does not depend on two or more people being logged on at the same time.

Interstitial Experiences
The singular, asynchronous nature of many web interactions makes them perfect interstitial activities.  You have a moment, you peek at Facebook. You stand in line waiting to order coffee, you update twitter. You take a pause on vacation and upload a photograph. Your friends come along, add comments and feedback, and you reply when you have a moment.
Most web pages and applications require little context, little planning and little time. You hop on when you have a moment, and spend it on facebook. You plant a row of crops on FarmVillle, spend energy in Mafia wars, or reply to a clever comment.
Click and Type

The most common things one does on the web is click or type. Facebook, Twitter, a blog comment, a moment of casual play in Mafia Wars. All of these require little more than clicking on links, colorful icons, or entering simple text into a text field. Adding a picture requires slightly more savvy, although built in apps on smart phones are quickly turning this into a click and tap operation.

The Challenges of Immersion

Contrast the web page based experience with a virtual world interaction. You can simply log on and wander around Second Life on your own, admiring the impressive builds. You can explore in solitary splendor, shop happily. You can (and many do) build quietly on their own. But all of these miss much of the true power of the space. Second Life comes alive when multiple people interact in the immersed space.

The challenge of Synchrony

If you wish to share an event with someone in Second Life, you both need to logon at the same time. If you wish to attend a live music event, you need to log on when the musician is streaming. This is intrinsic to the shared experience. It is at once one of the greatest powers of Second Life, and one of its greatest limitations. Virtual worlds allow people scattered across the globe to share an event. Sharing both an and the other peoeple’s presence is one of the fundamental things Second Life does. The singular, and synchronous nature inherent in such an experience is one of the major challenges for Second Life’s broader adoption.

The challenge of contiguous time

Synchrony not only imposes the requirement of scheduling your time, it imposes the challenge of sharing blocks of time. Live music doesn’t pause when the phone rings. A conversation with several other residents doesn’t sit, frozen in time, while you put the kids to bed. Many immersive experiences require relatively focused, uninterrupted time in order to enjoy them.

Contagious time is a challenge in common with most immersive experiences. World or Warcraft is hard to play in 5 minute bites. You can watch a movie in smaller chunks than its full length, but fragmenting the viewing experience weakens the power of the medium.

Non Interstitial Use

The Synchronous and contagious nature of shared interaction are antithetical to interstitial interaction. This is Second Life’s biggest strength and largest challenge. Popping in to the world for five minutes is not an attractive model when events run an hour or more. Popping in when you happen to have free time, you’re dependent on an interesting thing happening at the time you pop in, and for a period of time roughly in line with your casual availability

The challenge of Richness

While strictly speaking, Second Life is click and type, the complexity of installing the client, and managing dressing, puppeteering and navigating an avatar is substantially higher than that of merely clicking a link and adding a 10 word status or sharing a funny youtube video.

Second life asks users to install a complex client which works best if the users both update their graphics drivers, and often tweak their settings. Once they have installed the client, they are confronted with an array of tasks, from dressing, to pupeterring an avatar, to teleporting around the grid. While the second life client (In all of its manifestations) is not a paragon of good user interface design, the major challenge is at least as much the set of tasks rather than any specific user interface issues. When you look at comparable game and virtual world viewers from equally rich environments, similar amounts of complexity are thrown at users.

Managing the challenges of immersion

Engaging in an immersive shared experience is fundamentally different than interacting with the web. Linden Lab needs to understand this, and account for it when looking at how to grow beyond early adopters. You can’t turn your back on immersion.  Immersion is a key part of the experience. You can’t remove the challenges by eliminating the core features of the experience. I think you instead must look at each challenge and ask, how can I build a bridge between mainstream experience today, and the immersive world.

You cannot remove the set of tasks required to navigate a rich experience. You can let the tools and capabilities unfold in a way which eases the user’s entry into the space.

You cannot remove the synchronous nature of the immersive experience, but you have to make it easy for people to find things that are interesting when they enter the space. The first hour, needs to connect potential users to what is happening in Second Life right then. The user experience needs to make it trivial for people to find events, needs to make it easy for them to go to those events, and needs to help them share the excitement of events with thier friends.

You cannot eliminate the challenge of contiguous time. Indeed, the fact that five minutes doesn’t let you do much *in* second life is a basic fact of immersion. As a world, a place, five minutes just isn’t time enough to engage in much activity. This, is, I think, a hint. What *could* you do with five minutes? What interstitial things could people do, possibly with ever appearing as an avatar which would help them connect more deeply to the space.

Food for thought. Answer some of these challenges, in ways which do not reject the core value of a shared, immersive experience and you may drive mainstream adoption. Ignore them at your peril. Ignore the connection between your unique value and these challenges and risk destroying that value in the attempt to reach for more users.

June 10, 2010


Posted in Musings at 8:14 am by zhaewry

Linden Lab had a very bad day yesterday. A lot of people, some of them my friends, had a very bad day yesterday. Second Life certainly didn’t have a good day. Trimming 1/4 of the staff, shutting offices, and disrupting plans isn’t a good thing.  The sense of sudden change, and confusion which came with it reinforces that perception.

My concerns and best wishes to everyone who got swept up in the downsizing.  Losing a job is rarely fun. Given Linden Lab’s size and history, this hits some people even harder.  A lot of bright, creative and hard working people are suddenly dealing with looking for new jobs and dealing with a loss of connection to a special community. Whump, a friend, drops a hint of that with the creation of an “emergency replacement avatar.”  Another ex-linden remarked, while looking at the mass graveyard one resident setup, “This is the part about identifying with your avatar that isn’t so hot.”

Where does all this leave Second Life? I don’t think anyone can answer that question.  As an outside observer, that’s even harder of course. Mark Kingdon and the board, and the investors in Linden Lab no doubt think they understand where they are going. The rather vague and very polished press release and blog postings don’t give any details or roadmap which would lead one to go “aha!” There is neither what they no longer think will work, nor in any deep way ‘This is what we are going to do next, and why.” to be found in there.

I carefully separated  the kind of day “Second Life” had from the company and the people. Why? Because Second Life, at this point, is not just a service that Linden Lab runs, but a community and an ecosystem centered around that service. Second Life took a hit, as a service, and no doubt as a community. Until the dust settles, and its possible to discern where that leaves Linden Lab its hard to understand the nature of that hit.  Is this the beginning of a slow fade into obscurity? Is it a move on the road to an acquisition or IPO? Possibly. Is it related to the sagging concurrency and resident numbers? its hard to imagine it isn’t.  Exactly how all these parts relate, and how Linden’s road map for the service is going to change, is impossible to divine at the moment. Too much noise, too much dust, too much disruption. Not nearly enough information about what projects are dead, and which ones will never be tackled.

The Second Life community is full of loud voices, many speaking with bold statements about what Wednesday’s events mean … This WILL happen. This is because of XX. This is a plan to do Y….  Second Life attracts passionate engagement, and the blogs, tweets, and discussions reflect that passion.   I don’t think anyone can say what the full impact is, because nobody knows. Not the wisest blogger, not the shrillest commentator, the  not  most puzzled newb.  Many of the newly ex-Lindens can (and probably will in time) tell bits of the story, as they were visible from where they sat.  I see no way to spin such a massive change as good. It’s bad, its disruptive, and it clearly, in spite of spin and pretty words, is a sign of serious strategy and execution issues at the lab.

What next? I certainly don’t know. I think anyone who tries to make definite firm statements about what it means if jumping the gun rather badly. I hope there is some serious thought about how Linden Lab got where it is. I think there needs to be thought about the unique value of a Virtual World. I don’t think simply pushing more social media, more Facebook, more FarmVille makes sense. There is a world of difference between an immersive place one visists and shares with friends, and a game one plays in one’s spare minutes on facebook.

Logins still work, The sims are still running and sometimes lagging, people are still bending prims and painting cool textures onto them While lots of people are  hurt and confused, I don’t think the “game is over.”   I think there is a lot to worry about, and still a huge amount of potential. Whether Linden Lab, or some other company mines what Linden has created, I don’t know. Too soon to tell. Too Soon.  Wait a little, and see, before running off to proclaim what it all means.

~ Zha

March 15, 2010

Viewer2.0 beta: The Good, The Bad, The Ugly and the Odd

Posted in Musings, SecondLife, Viewer 2.0 at 10:38 am by zhaewry

The Good, the Bad, The Ugly and the Odd

Linden Lab released the first wide beta of the 2.0 viewer a few weeks ago. I’ve been using the beta as my primary viewer since then. I don’t think you can fairly make sense of a new user interface through a hit and run experience. What is my impression? Well, it’s a work in progress. There is much to like. There is some to dislike, one or two things which are really bad, and a range of things which make you scratch your head and go “How on earth did that end up in a user interface?”

As I stressed in my previous note about the client, this is BETA code. The reason one does a beta is to find problems when you think you’re getting close to what you want. With user interface code, this means actually getting it in the hands of real users and then seeing how they manage.  So, one assumes this isn’t the fully baked version that will be 2.0. At the same time, it’s close enough to what Linden is likely to ship that its worth some serious critique about the parts which are broken.

This post represents my personal experience and my personal reaction. User interface is a mater of taste. Tastes vary, so you may not agree with some or possibly all of my specific issues. I welcome feedback and other people’s insights.

After a quick overall impression, I’m going to proceed to highlight a series of themed issues. I’m then going to list off a collection of specific smaller issues, and finally close with some suggestions on how to improve the user’s experiences with the client.

This entire post is intended to be constructive. User interface building is hard. Changing a large body of code is hard. There is a lot of potential in the 2.0 client. There are also a lot of rough edges. I hope this posts highlights some of the rough edges, and more importantly, offers some suggestions to smooth them off.


I like the basic approach. While Second Life isn’t the web and has some very different user interface challenges, starting new users with an environment which looks like one they know fairly well is clever. In many ways, this is both a strength and a weakness of the approach. Its strong when the metaphor works and in particular, when the client acts in ways which make sense to people who are familiar with web browsers. Looking like a web browsers works quite badly when the client looks like a web browser but doesn’t do what you expect of a web browser. It works even less well, when you say to yourself “Well, heck, it could do it in the obvious way.”

The “web like” framing metaphor is a starting point. Unlike a web browser, the Second Life Client actually is a set of tools for a number of  very different tasks. The core task of the client is to immerse the user in the virtual world.  This doesn’t simply mean showing the world. It also means making it easy to interact with the world.  This has several parts. First, making it easy to do tasks you need to do, second doing so in a minimally obtrusive fashion. Third, not hiding information which aids immersion from the user.

A good user interface needs to present information in an attractive and consistent fashion. It should also do so in a fashion which accommodates people on a variety of screen sizes and users with a variety of visual challenges.  The current user interface as presented in the 2.0 beta fails this test in significant ways. Good interfaces don’t waste space. The beta client often has acres of space which is unused while cramming elements into tiny spaces.

Good user interfaces try to avoid “modal” behavior, where things behave differently based on where you are in the interface. The 2.0 interface is modal in a number of frustrating ways. The Camera widget is painfully modal, requiring clicks to change the effect of clicking on the arrows within the widget. The Audio controls are obscure in similar ways.

The right hand dock

One of the major new elements in the 2.0 beta is the right hand dock. One stop shopping for a lot of information? Perhaps. But at the moment its also a highly modal tangle of user interface elements. The tab slides away to clean up the screen while holding context, which is nice. But, the tab can’t be resized, nor can it be torn off. This means that all the uses of the tab are forced to share a vertical format. It also means that you get to see one, and only one type of information in the client at a time. You can’t see your friends list while browsing a profile. You can’t see nearby people while looking at notices. You can’t  use the inventory at the same time as seeing any of the above information. (You can, oddly, pop up the old 1.23 style inventory floater, if you know the obscure keystrokes, but all the other elements are pinned into the modal dock.)

Making the dock unsizable makes it painfully hard to use nested inventory folders, as you’re never able to see all of the names of nested folders without constant mouse motion. Making the dock modal means you end up constantly clicking between things in the dock and losing any context you had in a task. Making the dock handle so many type of information leads to odd little left and right arrows which hide and expose other information.


Notifications are a promising element, but they don’t quite work. For one, the things being shoved into the notification box are of several types. Some are group notices. These are rarely items you need to address in a hurry. Mixed in are events from scripts, teleport offers, texture offers and online/offline status updates. online/offline updates are especially bizarre. They go away without a trace. If you are not at your screen, you will miss them. They do not go to the chat history, they do not go to the IM history they are gone.

Mixing real time and notice style IMs in one play is awkward. Its easy to mistake the one for the other. Having that space combined with the sometimes redundant, sometimes needed IM popups is also remarkably busy.

The notifications are small by default . On top of this, every single one begins “topic:”   Using up 7 characters in an already too small field is simply adding insult to injury.  You can resize (and even tear off) the notification cluster, but it chews up space, and you soon get into scrolling even so. Even if you expand notifications to the point there is extra space, you still need to click through them to the popup to actually get the full content.

The “This group has traffic” chiclets rapidly end up with a hard to notice scroll bar and useful element out of sight. Yes, you can resize and float these, but again, it tends to end up with scrolling and active window management.

Chat, IM context switching and all that jazz

The 2.0 beta separates chat from IM (both group and private) This leads to two totally disjoint text steams and two separate input areas. In my personal use, this is very frustrating. I am often (almost always when I’m in a public space) using both IMs and chat. Often to people in the same space. Public chat for the social conversation in the space, IM for a quiet word with a friend to share a thought or insight. Group IM, because a relevant topic has come up. Having the two streams fully disjointed means I need to hop between two input areas. The ability to merge the streams in the 1.23 client is sorely missed.

For added frustration, there is a quick keyboard shortcut to the local chat area (enter will do if you’re not in an input area, escape, followed by enter if you are) I haven’t found one to take you back to the conversation box. Flipping the mouse back and forth is tedious. For added difficulty, the very hard to notice update of IM tabs while you’re looking at text chat makes it very easy to totally miss someone speaking to you in IM.

To Link, or Not to Link

The beta is very inconsistent about what’s a “link.” This breaks the metaphor of a web client approach in a number of frustrating ways. In a lot of places where you could just have a link there is a TINY little (i) which you can click. Most of these lead to an odd intermediate visual element and clicks there take you to the information you want.  If this is a web like client, the model for links is well understood. You make the element that comprises a link visually distinguished, and clicking on it takes you to the information. Web browsers rarely have little tiny icons you have to locate and then click.

The intermediate element approach shows up in a lot of places. See someone’s name in chat? You get this odd “not a profile” not a link thing.  Touch one of the notification chiclets,and you get a new thing, where most likely you can finally click what you want. Hover an item, and you get a very lightweight info box, which is far less informative than the 1.23 style hovertip. Again, you get to click that if you want the real information about the item. If the Lab is concerned that the current hovertips are too complex for beginning users, make level of detail a choice.

Windows/Floaters land all over the place

When you close a floater/window in the current 2.0 beta, its destination ranges from stacking up in very transparent boxes on the upper left, to docking with the bottom chat bar to just vanishing. How you restore a window you had up is equally variable. You can tear off both the notify stack and the conversation update stack, and they dock back to the bottom. This is a lot of places for windows to be going.  If you do tear off the two notify/conversation update windows, they no longer re-arrange when you open and close the right side dock.


A ton of digital ink has been splashed on search. The current 2.0 beta search tool fails in almost every way imaginable. On head to head tests, the previous interface requires fewer clicks, finds far more material in a direct and accurate fashion and doesn’t require trying to speak directly to the underlying search code for simple searches. Event searches spanning multiple days don’t work. Avatar and group searches where the names include common terms require horrible contortions to avoid getting off topic results. The top search field is almost entirely useless. Almost every search entered there leads to slogging through the full search interface.

Just plain unattractive


Profiles, Profile Pictures and the whole use of the right hand dock to present these elements in the current beta is just a mess. The profile has historically been an important element in connecting users. Looking at people’s profiles in social settings is a routine behavior of many residents. In  the 1.23 client, profile information is presented in a floater, with significantly more text in each element displayed. The way picks and classifieds are presented is especially well worked out. Each pick stands on its own with a picture, text and location. In the beta,  The profile is mashed into a smaller space. The primary profile picture competes with the First life picture for screen real estate, shrinking both to postage stamp size. The text for both is truncated, requiring clicking more to see it and then hiding other parts of the profile.  Putting both first life and second life profile components side by side makes each seem less important.  The phrase “real life” muddies the water significantly, especially as there is no actual validation of any of the real life information.

Groups are shoved into a list of links flowed into a very hard to read hodge podge. If you click on a group to see what it’s about, you don’t get a floater, instead the profile is overlayed by the group information. At this point, clicking back takes you to…  Umm. The friend’s list. Exploring a persons profile groups is remarkably painful.

Picks are similarly mangled. Tiny postage stamp photos, “more” buttons hiding most of people’s text, and painfully small fonts. Classifeds get the same treatment, with a small entry at the bottom of the screen to clue you into their existence.  Picks and classifieds  retain a link to a location. You might expect this to be a clickable field. It is not. You cannot click it. You cannot drag it to your landmarks or the favorites bar. This is a direct violation of the web metaphor. In most web browsers, you can click on a link, and drag it directly to anyplace which takes a link and saves it.

The admittedly quirky interests tab is gone. This sort of puzzles, as Second Life is actually actively promoting Europe and other places where English isn’t the customary language, and yet the place in the profile letting people know which languages you speak has been removed.

Shoving profiles into the sidebar also eliminates the possibility of having more than one profile visible at a time. This is a real annoyance when talking to multiple people.  It also eliminates looking at your friends list while looking at a profile. I routinely stack up several profiles of people I’ve talked to, or content creators who’s content I’ve noticed to one side in the client. Removing this ability requires me to pause and copy/past or otherwise manage content, rather than letting the client for me. Again, being able to drag “links” would help here.

Ugly and Odd, point by point

This section enumerates bits of poor fit and finish. Some of these issues look like bugs/poor implementation of good ideas. Some of them look like more serious design choice issues. For each I’ll try to explain my concern and tie it to one of the themes from above.

Close, Minimize, Dock or whatever

When you have several windows up in the beta, you will be faced with a lovely selection of icons to dismiss a window. Some things have tiny little circular (x) tags. Some have more traditional boxed [x] elements. Some have little “_” elements which minimize them. Two almost identical items, the Conversation float and the chat history share the same element, but use totally different hiding mechanisms, and require a different way to restore them. Ctrl-p brings UP the preferences tab. Ctrl-h beings up (and minimizes) the local chat history. NOTHING on the keyboard seems to bring up the conversation floater. Some things are dismissed within the right hand dock by little top arrow clicks. The History chat adds to the mix by having a special little down arrow icon which redocks it onto the bottom text input area.

This hodge podge is inconsistent.  Users can’t learn what to look for, because the answer is different in most of the dialogs. User’s can’t develop a consistent expectation for keystrokes which bring windows up and down, because the answer is different for each type of dialog.

Cog or Plus or “advanced” or “right click” or…”More>>>” or “>>>”

The beta viewer has at least four ways and places to tweak things. A bunch of elements have little tiny “*” cogs on them. They show up at the bottom of the volume slider, the bottom of various bits of the right hand dock, and in the edit floaters at various times. They also can be found on the Inventory Floater. A number of elements have “+” icons which expose more functon. Some elements respond to right (context) clicks. In the graphic’s bit of the preferences profile we come across the “Advanced” button which exposes all the graphics tweakery which used to be revealed by clicking “custom” .  This is dead next to the “hardware” button which pops up a seperate little floater.

Colors, Contrast and Size

Those with even slightly long memories will recall much unhappy howling when the labs reskinned the client a while ago. One of the loudest complaints was that the lab imposed a color scheme which was very low contrast, thus making it hard on older eyes, or those with visual challenges.  The lab seems to have fully forgotten this outcry.  The beta client is full of low contrast elements. My personal dislikes include the dark green on gray, and the extremely tiny links to groups in profiles. In general, the client feels as it it was primarily developed and tested on people with 30 inch displays, and 30 year old eyes. Running it on my 16 inch laptop with nearly 50 year old eyes, it becomes unreadable on a regular basis.

In the 1.23 client, an unfocused floater becomes  transparent. Transparent floaters allow you to see more of the actual world. The 2.0 beta doesn’t include this feature.  Because floaters are more obtrusive when unfocused,  they can be lest around longer. The blocking effect of unfocused floaters leads to more clicking to minimize them, and then more clicking to return them when they are wanted again.

The Conversation box details

Tabs on the conversation box are just odd. No matter how much screen real estate is available they don’t show full group names. Nor do those tabs act as link elements. They also blink in an incredibly soft and easy to miss fashion and highlight new content very poorly (Having new content highlighted in an area far away which I need to click to see the details of is no help here at all. The fact that if you’re *in* a tab you get one behavior and not *in* a tab another is just bewildering. For the record if you left focus on a conversation box tab, you will not get any notice of the new content except for the actual text showing. The talk count on the bottom doesn’t go up and the window tab doesn’t highlight. If you focus away from SL and come back, you aren’t given any cue you should look other than the actual new content (if you can remember what was last said)

The “People” tab

The 1.23 “Contacts”  list is sucked into the right hand dock. As mentioned above this means it keeps getting lost as  you use the dock for other features. The list  has lost its direct access to tick boxes for “see me”, “map me” and “modify my objects.” This makes managing these properties much harder, as you can no longer sort by them, nor quickly see them. These status bits are hidden, two clicks away, inside people’s profile, on the “status and notes” tab.

The people list displays twice, first as “Online” then again as “All” which you can sort multiple ways, through the odd cog control at the bottom of the tab.  This is  redundant, and only serves as a tease, showing how nice it might be to to put people in folders of the user’s choosing.  Pretty much every IM client I use has folders I can manage. The lack of same in Second Life has been glaring for years. The added visual teaser here only highlights the absence.

Camera Controls

The camera controls are wildly modal and deeply confusing. I almost never used them in the 1.23 client. I simply cannot use them in the 2.0 beta. Having to constantly click between pan, tilt and zoom is just baffling. Its modal  in the very worst sense of modal.

Audio controls

First, the audio controls are hidden. The tiny little play and speaker icon are subtle beyond redemption. Second, I think they include the densest mix of overlapping elements in the entire new user interface. If you hover over the little speaker icon you get a little drop down master slider. If you click it, it mutes/un mutes the master volume. If you hover in the area you get a dark gray tiny bar with a button, a cog/tiny down triangle button and a “More>>” button which hovertips “Advanced controls” and gives you another complex little box. Viewer 2.0 adds a lot of added media context. Well and good, but this set of controls is massively more complicated than the 1.23 audio controls, dumps you to the middle of the preferences floater for some tasks and is diagonally across the screen from the voice controls. It is significantly harder to fine tune the mix of multiple speakers, background stream and sounds. The full up preferences screen us huge and much less useful than the previous small adjustment panel.

Making it better

Sort out the right hand dock

Fix the right hand dock. Make it sizable. Make it tear off. Don’t try to cram stuff into the straight jacket of a single fixed sized bar. Allow multiple torn off floaters of any item which is docked. Create a simple, consistent scheme by which they can be dismissed or minimized back to the dock.  Make the dock a place where things start, but recognize that it has limits. You don’t see every sub-window in a browser inside a single sidebar —  don’t do that in the client.  Think about providing a simple pattern for people to pull content back to the dock and then off the screen. One possibility would be a button which would redock floaters, another to pull the dock in. Think about making the metaphor as consistent as possible. Don’t minimize windows into multiple separate places without a very good reason.

Sort out notifications

Fix notifications. Stop letting some information vanish without a trace. Lower the click count needed to do routine tasks with notifications. Figure out how to highlight realtime interactive notifications. Scripts wanting user input are very different from a notice of an event four hours or days in the future.

Fix the chat/IM separation. People use chat and IM at the same time. Forcing people to mouse between them breaks immersion and complicates everyone’s life.

Improve consistency

Pick a single visual element for each major task, and make sure you use them consistently. Pick consistent keystroke behavior to match and make sure you can raise and dismiss stuff in a consistent and easy fashion.

Make hovertips match your metaphor and if you want very simple ones for beginning users, make the level of details and click through needed user controllable.  Make context clicking available universally rather than in select places. Make the meaning of left click and right click consistent across all the client’s elements, and make that match common web client practice. The new context menus allow more information to be displayed. Take advantage of this to minimize the number of clicks needed to access information. If this feels like it may overwhelm new users, include an option to either consolidate or cascade advanced information.

Make the client visually friendly and accessible

Allow serious, easy skinning of color. Allow easy font adjustments. Package at least one high contrast scheme. Avoid tiny window controls. They are hard to see, they are hard to mouse over and they are a nightmare to describe to people. Follow the web metaphor and make “link” and “click” areas large and easy to spot. Allow hovertips on them to help cue people. Avoid effects which blink. Avoid things you cannot turn off which are likely to trigger migraines and worse.  Run the client on laptops. Run it on small screens. Find some testers with older eyes. Find some testers with less than 20 20 vision. Make sure that its easy to spot key windows when new information is available. This may require customization so people can have as strong or light a cue as needed.

Avoid modal elements unless you have no choice

Modal elements are widely viewed as problematic in user interface design. The current viewer and the 2.0 beta are filled with them. As much as possible, ask whether they are making the user’s life better or worse. This is especially cogent in widgets like the camera controls. It is equally relevant in couplings between which tab is selected and what things do and don’t blink on other parts of the screen.

Revist widgets and block elements

Look hard at the various controls such as camera and moving. Simple is good. Modal is bad. Getting down to as few elements as possible is good, but not if it requires constant mouse motion to switch between modes.  Really look at the bulkier dialog elements and floaters. Look at how many different metaphors  and modes are in use and ask if that is useful.

Listen to the community and your users about search

It doesn’t work. Look at search in 1.23 and make sure that what replaces it works  as well or better. Search is an important part of the process of connecting users to users, and users to events. Broken search is really bad.  Its been said before. I’m saying it again. Find out how people are actually using search and figure out how to get them the same results or better. This is the base expectation. Taking away function is bad.

Make the web metaphor meaningful

Web browsers have a consistent pattern for links, hover tips and context menus. They have a consistent pattern for what you can drop/drag and where and why. The client ought to look at best practices in the major clients and follow them. Let people drag folders of bookmarks to the favorites bar. Make names and other elements real links, and make them behave that way. Two small examples. Dragging someone’s name out of chat to the people bar should generate a “friendship offer”  and put it up for you to click send on. Dragging someone’s name out of chat or IM to a group ought to do the same  in generating a group offer.

Worry about pretty

Make sure profiles, groups and the various things users see on a regular basis look pretty and polished. Pictures need to be big enough to see nicely. Text should be easy to read. Stuff which logically belongs together ought to stay together.Icons need to be big, pretty and consistent. Look at how other applications are doing these elements and emulate the pretty ones.

Second life is a very visual place. When the client frames rich 3d content in idiosyncratic, clunky visually obscuring ways, it breaks immersion and it creates a poor setting for users expecting a highly visual experience. Fit and finish matters a lot. Pretty matters a lot.  Think about how to make elements unobtrusive when they are not in use. Transparency should be settable for all elements, including whether they fade at all, fade on loss of focus, and how far they fade.

Missing bits

There are things which seem to be simply impossible to do in the 2.0 client. You can’t search for who’s permitted to modify your objects or map you. With large friend’s lists, these become serious annoyances. The very rudimentary skinning available in 1.23 is missing. Hovertips don’t show up for a lot of items and the ones which do take you through another link to the full information, which still seems less than was in 1.23.  Anything which simply can’t be done at all in 2.0 but can in 1.23 ought to be sorted out before the code is considered done.

The people tab  hints at nested folders for your contacts, but doesn’t deliver, instead showing an odd redundant pair of lists.  Fix thisand make it easy for people to manage contacts in ways which make sense to them.

There are a number of good ideas in the third party viewers which have not made it into 2.0 beta. quick access to Windlight presets is one of the biggest. There are a bunch of small but useful ideas to make it easier to tweak preferences without needing to visit the full preferences panel. The list goes on. The 2.0 team ought to be asking “Which of these belong in the mainline client?”

Closing thoughts

The 2.0 beta introduces a lot of new ideas. Some work, some don’t. The client is clearly among other tasks, aimed at improving first hour and new user experiences. The web client look helps with that, but the current fit and finish does not. I’ve offered one set of thoughts about what’s not working. I’ve tried to make this constructive and thoughtful. I look forward to seeing future versions of the 2.0 code. I don’t expect it all to get better at once. But.. At the moment, the sharp edges are all over the place. The ugly is pretty directly in front of people. Take the time to get the fit and finish right. Take the time to think through where you’ve over used new elements and where you don’t use them enough.

February 24, 2010

SL 2.0 Beta Viewer some quick tricks and a few impressions

Posted in Musings at 6:01 pm by zhaewry

So, by now, lots of people have grabbed the Second Life 2.0 beta and begun playing. My work keeps me safely away from the client, so I didn’t end up playing with any of the closed betas. This means that when the client went live, I got the same dizzying sensation of opening up the client and seeing something very different that so many people are getting.  After about 10 minutes of flipping settings and  a couple of restarts, I was much happier. Let me share what I set, and why..

But first.. a word from someone who develops software for a living.  (That would be me) This is a BETA the code is not fully baked. This is “Try it out and make sure it’s close to right” Don’t expect wholesale changes, but do provide feedback. (See bottom of the post for links)

Removing the clutter and grouping stuff

I did two things almost in the first breath.  In preferences, under Chat, I ticked “Show IMs in tabs” this requires a restart, but it instantly corralled the cloud of IM windows back into a manageable tabbed pane.  I also ticked “enable plain text chat history” This, combined with “ctrl-h” or tapping the little arrrow next to the chat bar, corralled the local chat stream into a single,  text dense pane, very much closer to the old chat history.

With those two done, the last major thing to find out how to manages sound. I, like many people logged on to the random stream in my parcel.  The master wasn’t hard to spot on the top right.  You may see a little subtle “>” or “II” up there (play and pause) they do what you expect. The master volume is also there.  If there are multiple streams and you hover there, you get a “more” option to manage them, and finally, a little “*” like “cog/gear”  control. Get used to looking for those and “+” signs in the UI, they tend to open up additional controls.

With those tasks sorted out, the client suddenly looked a lot less cluttered. A little exploring shows you can get rid of even more clutter. The client uses the “right” mouse button to pull up some cute little context selections. (try CMD-click if you’re a one button apple person, I’m told) If you right click the top bar, you can un click the navigation and favorites bar,  freeing up the top. Likewise you can un-select “gesture” “move” “snapshot” and “view” on the bottom bar. (You don’t alas, get back the input area space those eat up) At that point, if you tap the “>>” chevron on the dock to the right side of the screen, the UI is pretty well hidden. Excellent for exploring, when you’re not chatting away.

Things to play with

After the basics made sense.  I dug about some more. Here are is a list of random settings and oddities

  1. Setting graphics, is 99% the same, but.. unlike the “custom”  clicky, you “depress” the “advanced” button and it stays down. This one baffles me. Its not a gear or a plus sign which would have been much more consistent with the rest of the UI. I’m fond of pretty, so I dialed it all the way up.
  2. Context clicking is turned on in a lot of the gui. Try right clicking, lots of stuff is lurking
  3. If you want the old inventory “floater” ctrl-shift-I will bring it up. Floating, resizsable.
  4. The old advanced menu has been broken into two parts and reorganized. “rebake” is prominent, and there is now “develoepr” which can be enabled off of advanced
  5. On Developer, you can go to “rendering” and play with shadows. If your graphics card is up to it, and you’re lucky. Turn on “Framebuffer Objects” then turn on “Deffered Rendering” You should see a sudden drop in frame rate, and shadows. I saw a *lot* of odd visual effects at first then it got more stable. Worth exploring
  6. Play with “outfits” Finally a way to organize whole looks without copying inventory all over the place.
  7. The “nearby” and “recently” tabs on the people lists are very useful. Look at how you can pop up context menus from them.
  8. The teleport history is sane, and should remind you of browser history. Nuff said. Likewise the favorite’s bar. You can drag landmarks into it, or like Chrome you can tap the little star to add a favorite. You’ll also find a favorite folder in your inventory.  These ought to make it a lot easier for people to move around second life.
  9. The search is a mixed blessing. If you are looking for specific things, put in your search term, then refine by topic. Its not quite elegent, but it works. For general, quick searches, the little input box on the navigation bar seems more than sufficient.


A bunch of these are “fit and finish” some are just odd

  1. When your inventory is loading, the sidebar will show (loading) the floater “ctrl-shift-i” will show you actual progress. I want progress in the sidebar. (Actually, I think the inventory UI could use some more loving in general)
  2. The audio controls are hard to spot, and while the default task is *sort* of easy to do, I think the top bar has room for a little more visual distinction, and a little more to cue you.
  3. The text input area is a mess. Its tiny, it doesn’t tear off, and it’s not resizable. I end up with acres of un used gray menu bar on the bottom, begging to be used as a text input area, or torn off.
  4. I haven’t been able to figure out how to get the login/logout messages in history. I like those, and like being able to scroll back and spot them.
  5. The text in the right hand “docked” area is not affected by the “text size” controls, and some of it is a real eye test for my Cuban Missile Crises vintage eyes. The links for “groups” in people’s profiles is way too much of an eye test.
  6. How to “apply” changes is in obvious in a bunch of the sidebar


All of the above said, this is a beta. It needs refinement. It also needs feedback. If you see something you don’t like, or can’t figure out, telling the developers increases the odds of it being fixed a LOT.


Don’t simply complain. Explain why it’s not working for you, and what might work better. It may not help, but failing to engage the developers will ensure your concerns won’t get addressed.

Personal take:

Personally? I’m really impressed.  The new viewer cleans up a lot of stuff, but doesn’t simply remove function. Mostly, its been pushed away from the first glance, but isn’t hard to get at. If you know, or learn the shortcut keys, almost all the function from the 1.23 client is pretty easily found.

May 21, 2009

What’s real…

Posted in Musings, social at 4:42 pm by zhaewry

There has been a whole bunch of additional posting about pseudonymous identity and the limits (and implicit) benefits of keeping your real life separate from your virtual persona.  What follows are some additional thoughts based on the ongoing discussion.

Real and Trustworthy are not direct synonyms

Its easy to get carried away with notions that “real world” identity is inherently more trustworthy than a well established digital persona.  I see people say words like “in order to do business in virtual worlds, you must use your real life identity.”   A  real life name, phone number and picture don’t create trust on their own.

Trust has several parts.   Reputation, the “affirmative” or “positive” aspects of trust, requires a stable identity.  It does not, however, require that identity be tied to the real world.  Recourse, or what happens when trust is broken, a “negative” aspect of trust is more problematic.  Slightly ironically,  having recourse enhances trust.  A pseudonymous identity can limit or even totally prevent recourse. To the extent that this occurs, it clearly limits trust.

Informally agreements, and more formally contracts, are part of how we encode trust.  Agreements include notions of recourse while contracts often include specific penalty clauses for non performance.  Avatars,  not having a will or existence of their own, can’t sign a contract or make an agreement.  An avatar can be the agency of making the agreement, just as a phone can aid negotiation or a pen can be used to sign a contract.  Anyone who says “Oh, no, the phone agreed to that not me” would be reasonably laughed at, as would someone who claimed that their pen signed the contract and therefore should be sued.  An opaque pseudonymous identity gets in the way of a formal agreement or contract because it breaks the the tie to the actual person undertaking the agreement.

Its less the real life name that provides the trust and more the possibility of  recourse that matters.  Recourse ties to roles. You don’t sue people personally when they fail to deliver as an agent of a company.  Indeed, one of the major purposes of the corporation is to make it the legal separation between the individuals and the corporate entity clear. The recourse  is generally proportional to the harm done.  This offers possible avenues for pseudonymous people who wish to engage in business where recourse would be of value: interpose an agent who can sign a contract and manage recourse.

Virtual Worlds create magic effects, not actual magic

This is where I get blunt. There is tremendous power in the immersive effects of a virtual world. This immersive effect is not magic and doesn’t create digital people or disembodied moral actors. Very cool and powerful effects happen when we immerse in a virtual space. We can chose our appearance. We can role play, we can explore lots of facets of our life.  We do not, however, either create a separate unique person or disconnect our personal responsibility from our avatar(s).  You are welcome to be totally private and create a rich fantasy back-story for your avatar.  It does not change the fact that the human being is the actual motive power behind the avatar and remains responsible for the avatar’s actions.  I will happily accept your choice of avatar and behavior at face value.  I would hope you would reciprocate.  None of this creates a separate person.

Connecting people via computers doesn’t introduce anything that isn’t present when two people interact. Putting aside fundamental debates about the nature of self awareness and consciousness, avatars are projections of people. Excepting explicit role play, an avatar acts and speaks as an extension of the person controlling it.  Second Life isn’t a game, it’s a medium through which people interact. Calling avatars “characters” “playing” a “game” may sound cute but its a corner case.

Pseudonomity doesn’t change this fact.  For most people their avatar is not a “role” they take on, it is an expression of themselves.  I don’t think of myself as talking to a “role” or a “character.”  I am talking to a person.   I don’t think that “whizbang avatarname” is a role who could be “played” by someone.  I think it is an expression of what the real person behind the avatar is thinking.

I might be able to guess what some person might say in a certain situation. This doesn’t make me that person.  When the person who uses an avatar dies, the avatar dies.  Sure, someone could use it, possibly even act a lot like the original avatar.  It wouldn’t make them the person behind the avatar nor would it make a discussion with them the same as a discussion would have been, had the original person still been alive.

In closing

To recapitulate the point I made in my previous post — there is nothing wrong with pseudonomous identities, but they do impose limitations.  To make a new point — there is nothing within our experience of virtual worlds which introduces a magical new actor.  There are people and avatars and interactions. Thinking the magical power of the experience creates a new moral actor or person seems perilously close to delusional. Virtual worlds are magical, not magic.

May 15, 2009

Honesty, Trust and Privacy

Posted in social at 2:29 pm by zhaewry

There has been a lot of recent discussion about honesty, privacy, and pseudonymous people in virtual worlds. This is very well captured in Botgirl’s blog and many other blogs and comments.  I have a few thoughts I would like to add to this discussion.

The strongest thought is, that there is no single answer to how to manage your identity in the digital world.  For some people complete transparency works. For other people, a total seperation between identities meets their needs. Most people probably end up somewhere in between.  What matters is candor, honesty and clarity.  This is separate from choosing how to manage ones identity. A totally pseudonymous person can be deeply honest, or totally deceitful. Someone who is transparently linked to their real life self can still lie.  We chose in real life how much to share, this is no different on line or in a virtual world.

What does honesty and clarity mean? It does not require transparency of identity.  It does, I think, require honestly letting people know what you are doing. There is a right for each person to chose what they want to expose. Nobody has a right to demand real life facts that you don’t care to disclose.  I have friends in Second Life and on line where I know *nothing* about their off line life.  I have friends where I know a great deal. Those choices to share are personal and often evolve over time.

What I think is foundational is that there are real people behind each avatar. The keys are pressed by flesh and blood humans. The thoughts, the ideas, the emotions belong to the humans not to the avatars, not to the digital persona but to the human being. The clarity desired is not clarity from the avatar, but from the human being.  Be clear. If you are role playing, tell people. If you chose to separate your real life from your virtual persona, make that clear.  If you have multiple personas in the virtual world, I prefer to know when I am interacting with a single person behind the avatar. It is not my right, you may chose otherwise, but I think it common courtesy. No semantic games here.  The onus lies on the human, not the avatar. There is nobody else there.

Equally foundational is respecting people’s choices.  Respect people’s choice to be private. Respect people’s choice to be more open. Respect people’s chosen persona. The ability to chose one’s appearance and persona is one of the powers of virtual worlds, and of the Internet. When people chose to share their chosen persona they are sharing part of themselves. When we disrespect that, we disrespect the person, not some avatar, not some digital person, but a real human being.  Equally, when someone uses their digital persona as an excuse for bad behavior, that is disrespectful of everyone who does not.  Honestly saying “I have changed my mind” or “I am no longer comfortable with how I am managing my identity” is far more respectful than various forms of deceitful behavior, justified by pseudonimity.

I personally feel that, as botgirl has expressed, pseudonymous behavior impose limits in inter personal relationships.  Everyone has the right to make that choice and they have the right for it to be respected.  Choices have consequences, and one of the very real choices of deep pseudonomy may be being taken less seriously by some people and finding some people emotionally guarded.

May 5, 2009

Context Matters, Copyright and “full permissions”

Posted in Musings at 5:04 pm by zhaewry

Context matters


I am not a lawyer, and this verges on lawyerdom, so… please don’t take it as legal advice, but take it as a simple exercise in pointing out what, in many ways, should be obvious.

 Words and phrases rarely convey their full meaning without a context. “Full permissions” as used casually, by parts of the Second Life community is a painfully abused example. The phrase is often used as a perfectly reasonable short hand for an object which has Copy, Transfer and Modify permissions enabled. Such an object can be changed at will, handed to other users within Second Life, and generally shared freely. This phrase is, however, contextual. The context is very clear. It applies to behavior within Linden Lab’s Second Life world. The phrase has no meaning in the larger world. In particular, it has no meaning when it comes to taking content created and used within Second Life to other environments. Content created by Second Life users is not public domain, or free use material. Your use of *any* items within Second Life is governed by the Terms of Service. https://support.secondlife.com/ics/support/default.asp?deptID=4417  In particular pay attention to section 1.3:


You acknowledge that Linden Lab and other Content Providers have rights in their respective Content under copyright and other applicable laws and treaty provisions, and that except as described in this Agreement, such rights are not licensed or otherwise transferred by mere use of the Service. You accept full responsibility and liability for your use of any Content in violation of any such rights. You agree that your creation of Content is not in any way based upon any expectation of compensation from Linden Lab.


That’s pretty clear. Why can you use copyrighted material within second life?  Well that’s because of section 3.2

 3.2 You retain copyright and other intellectual property rights with respect to Content you create in Second Life, to the extent that you have such rights under applicable law. However, you must make certain representations and warranties, and provide certain license rights, forbearances and indemnification, to Linden Lab and to other users of Second Life.


Users of the Service can create Content on Linden Lab’s servers in various forms. Linden Lab acknowledges and agrees that, subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, you will retain any and all applicable copyright and other intellectual property rights with respect to any Content you create using the Service, to the extent you have such rights under applicable law.


Notwithstanding the foregoing, you understand and agree that by submitting your Content to any area of the service, you automatically grant (and you represent and warrant that you have the right to grant) to Linden Lab: (a) a royalty-free, worldwide, fully paid-up, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive right and license to (i) use, reproduce and distribute your Content within the Service as permitted by you through your interactions on the Service, and (ii) use and reproduce (and to authorize third parties to use and reproduce) any of your Content in any or all media for marketing and/or promotional purposes in connection with the Service, provided that in the event that your Content appears publicly in material under the control of Linden Lab, and you provide written notice to Linden Lab of your desire to discontinue the distribution of such Content in such material (with sufficient specificity to allow Linden Lab, in its sole discretion, to identify the relevant Content and materials), Linden Lab will make commercially reasonable efforts to cease its distribution of such Content following the receipt of such notice, although Linden Lab cannot provide any assurances regarding materials produced or distributed prior to the receipt of such notice; (b) the perpetual and irrevocable right to delete any or all of your Content from Linden Lab’s servers and from the Service, whether intentionally or unintentionally, and for any reason or no reason, without any liability of any kind to you or any other party; and (c) a royalty- free, fully paid-up, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive right and license to copy, analyze and use any of your Content as Linden Lab may deem necessary or desirable for purposes of debugging, testing and/or providing support services in connection with the Service.


Further, you agree to grant to Linden Lab a royalty-free, worldwide, fully paid-up, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive, sublicensable right and license to exercise the copyright, publicity, and database rights you have in your account information, including any data or other information generated by your account activity, in any media now known or not currently known, in accordance with our privacy policy as set forth below, including the incorporation by reference of terms posted at http://secondlife.com/corporate/privacy.php.


You also understand and agree that by submitting your Content to any area of the Service, you automatically grant (or you warrant that the owner of such Content has expressly granted) to Linden Lab and to all other users of the Service a non-exclusive, worldwide, fully paid-up, transferable, irrevocable, royalty-free and perpetual License, under any and all patent rights you may have or obtain with respect to your Content, to use your Content for all purposes within the Service. You further agree that you will not make any claims against Linden Lab or against other users of the Service based on any allegations that any activities by either of the foregoing within the Service infringe your (or anyone else’s) patent rights.

You further understand and agree that: (i) you are solely responsible for understanding all copyright, patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property or other laws that may apply to your Content hereunder; (ii) you are solely responsible for, and Linden Lab will have no liability in connection with, the legal consequences of any actions or failures to act on your part while using the Service, including without limitation any legal consequences relating to your intellectual property rights; and (iii) Linden Lab’s acknowledgement hereunder of your intellectual property rights in your Content does not constitute a legal opinion or legal advice, but is intended solely as an expression of Linden Lab’s intention not to require users of the Service to forego certain intellectual property rights with respect to Content they create using the Service, subject to the terms of this Agreement.


If you’ve gotten here, the answer to my question above is “Because Linden Lab has secured that right, for the use of content in the context of the service.” Well and good. That grant, does not, extend outside of the service. The copyright holder retains their usual rights outside of the service. This means they have the right to grant you a license to use their material if they chose. They also have the right to deny you that use, and absent an explicit grant, you can’t use it. There probably some fair use clauses which apply, for things like photographs of content in a virtual world, but, on the whole, the content is not free to use. Linden lab has retained itself some additional rights, so, you can complain if a random user throws up your content on their web page, but you can’t complain if Linden uses it in their promotional or other material.

Briefly, because this also matters, its not just copyright that kicks in here. Trademark may apply, and, in general, is even more restrictive. You can’t use trademarked material without the permission of the trademark holder, full stop. A copy of a logo or other protected material close enough to be infringing by the usual RL rules which govern such, will be just as protected in a virtual environment. Just a tidbit to keep in mind.

If anyone says of an item in SecondLife  “Its full perm, I can take it and use it as I see fit,” they are basically wrong. If you want to use someone’s content outside of SecondLife, you need explicit permission. It’s that simple.

August 1, 2008

Protocol, Software, Trust and Worlds

Posted in AWG, Musings, SecondLife at 9:56 pm by zhaewry

After reading some comments and hearing some questions in person I want to dive a little deeper into some of the topics I posted in my last entry. I think its important to be as clear as possible about: how specific parts of this technology works, how interoperability and software work, how implementations of software interact, and exactly why this can’t be simply solved by writing software. I want to explore some of the technical limits of software, and then how we can augment software with the legal and policy frameworks, to enable what I think are desirable properties in an emerging virtual worlds ecosystem.

Since I’m going to be talking about some legal issues and some policy issues, the usual disclaimers. I am not a Lawyer. I don’t represent Linden Lab.™ I’m discussing the technical issues and how they intersect policy. I do work for IBM but I am not speaking for IBM, or setting IBM policy. This discussion is reflection of my opinions on a work in progress. Most of these ideas have been discussed in Zero Linden’s office hours, or at AWGroupies meetings. Contents may have settled during shipping. Only the consumer should remove this tag.

Protocol, Software and Trust

There seems to be a some confusion about how interoperability could or could not protect content. Some of this seems anchored in a misconception that somehow its just a matter of writing software one way or the other and it will all be solved. The core of doing secure interoperability is understanding what can and cannot be done with software. There are unavoidable constraints when managing security and trust between independently controlled software components. The essence of which is we can never force another, independent component to be trustworthy via technical means. Given this constraint, we need to anchor inter component trust, not in pure software, but in a combination of legal and technical solutions.

Protocol, not software

The Architecture Working Group isn’t designing software, it is designing a suite of protocols. These protocols will be built into software. Hopefully lots of software. They will describe how software which wants to interoperate has to behave, in order for the desired interoperation to occur. It doesn’t dictate the interior of the software, but rather the points at which the software interacts with other software.

I am writing software which implements the protocols, as is Linden Lab, and the Python Open Grid Protocol ( PYGOP ) testing team, and people in the community. The protocol work is directly informed by what we learn from implementing the test cases, but the design happens at the protocol level.

This is not a casual point; this is the essence of the task. ANY software which follows the protocol should be capable of interoperation. The AWG is designing not one bit of software, or two or three, but a set of rules of engagement which tells software developers how they can write software which will work together. Note: Following a protocol permits interoperation, it does not enforce or require it. A service built on software which follows the protocol, should be able to work with other services following the protocol. They may or may not actually interoperate, based on whether they chose to accept requests from each other. The protocol says how they may work together, not that they must, or will accept requests from other services; that is a choice of the service providers. In fact, parts of the protocol are about managing those choices.

Trusting other software

A basic assumption of distributed computing is that there are concrete mathematical limits to how much you can trust remote software. From the outside you can’t tell what software is doing inside itself, nor can you force behavior on it. Understanding this limit and managing it is a key task of building a large distributed system. Take for example, the desire to have a simple handshake which says “This bit of code enforces Linden Lab style protection bits.” On its own, that handshake is meaningless. Why? because anyone can code the handshake and we have no mechanism for knowing if the code actually does that. We can code a complete permissions management system and contribute it to OpenSim, and someone can change a few lines of code, recompile the software and run an OpenSim that claims to match that spec, but doesn’t.

Fortunately while we can’t trust other systems to implement what we want them to, there are some nice approaches which permit us to verify the identity of a remote system. We can use these techniques to know *who* is making requests. Better still, we can use such tools to issue partners ways of proving they are who they claim to be. Just as we have formalisms which show us why we can’t trust software to do what it says it does, we have a set of formalisms, which allow software to prove to us within careful limits, it is being run by a trusted partner. For those interested in the topic, a look at public key cryptography as well as digital signatures would be worthwhile. Including a digital signature in the handshake, gives us a basis for trusting that the remote software is being run by the party it claims to be run by.


So.. if we can’t ensure by technical means that a server we want to talk will honor our desires, how can we trust it? In the end, I suspect, we will fall back to the very simple mechanism of having a legal contract which specifies the rules of engagement for both parties. A terms of service, as it were, for a service provider to access another service provider’s resources.

One such pattern might require a legal contract that both parties would honor DMCA takedown requests, an augmented Linden permissions system, and use the Lindex as a common currency. Another pattern might be a simple agreement to only share publicly released content. Another might be a formal “wild west” pattern which says, effectively, “This service doesn’t enforce any rules.” As a protocol, we want to enable a broad range of possible policies and allow the greater community to explore which policies prove attractive and useful and which prove less desirable.

Blending technical and legal techniques

Now lets look at how we could blend together the technical with the legal. The technical is the set of protocols which allow grids to use public keys to establish, provably, they are who they are. The technical is also being able to mark which policies they care to share. This can be as simple as using null keys and policies and allowing non-secure operation. This could be as complex as having a legal contract defining what policies they want to follow.

Key exchanges and the associated policies would provide a mechanism to tie the technical trust to the legal framework for each service to trust the other as much or as little as they chose. As we are looking to enable a broad range of possible connections between services, the protocols need to admit a range of possible relationships. I expect we will see a small set of common ones and a much larger set of less common ones. The goal, in many ways, will be to enable exploration of a rich set of possible connections. In general, permitting a range of possible solutions and letting real world experience show us which ones prove valuable feels right to me.

To recap. In this model trust is anchored in real world legal agreements. Based on those agreements parties can issue each other digital keys which allow proof that they are who they say they are and that they are legally obligated by the contracts associated with the issuance of those keys. Those who don’t feel the need for such comprehensive measures can publish keys which permit access at a less trusted level. A whole range of possible relationships is the goal, not one single relationship.

Related concepts and issues

I want to run through some related concepts which came up in reading people’s comments, and listening to various people’s concerns and questions.

Permissions, and Copyright

Some people in the Second Life community seem to believe that the current system of “Copy/No Copy, Mod/No Mod, Transfer/No Transfer” within the current Second Life implementation forms a digital rights scheme, or a way to manage copyright and licensing. This seems very odd to me. Nothing in the scheme speaks to license, copyright or use. Linden Lab’s uses the permissions bits as exactly that. They form a set of permissions that the software follows. While I’m not a lawyer, as I see it, permissions aren’t a license and don’t convey copyright. I can’t see how a content creator would either surrender rights, nor protect them because of the permission bits they set inside second life. The license grant, which covers use of material in Second Life, would seem to be pretty firmly in the Terms of Service, not in the permissions bits. I highly encourage anyone reading this entry who wants to understand where the copyright grant to use content happens at the moment, to read the TOS.

Virtual worlds, and web content

A parallel is often raised to content in the web. This roughly is asserted as, “why can’t I simply apply the same range of choices to protect my content in a virtual world, as I can in the web.” The rough answer, is. well, you could use any scheme you wanted to encode textures, but only people sharing the scheme would be able to see the textures. If you wanted to go deeper into content encoding, note that you would need a common scheme which was also supported by the region simulators, as without being able to decode the scheme, you couldn’t actually manage the physical simulation which is at the heart of a virtual world. Unlike a web page, the contents of a region are managed as much by the server as a client. When you want your prim boots to be seen by all the other avatars in your virtual space, you need to share the description of those boots with the server and the other clients. When you want your prim tree to be part of the landscape, you need to actually hand it’s description to the region simulator to manage.

Deep Digital Rights Management (DRM)

Digital Rights Management covers a lot of space. When I say, that deep DRM isn’t in scope for what we’re doing with the AWG, i specifically mean the form of DRM where you have a provably sealed cryptographically managed path from the content source to the end of the consumption chain. This is the sort of thing which attempts to prevent a DVD from being copied on your computer, or you making copies of your music downloads. When you dig through all the technical details, this sort of DRM turns into an exercise in trying to give you a copy of the digital content that isn’t a copy of the digital content. That is the essence of the problem. “Here, consumer, you can have this song, so you can play it, but you can’t have this song so you can copy it.” In order to make this happen, you end up with very draconian software which controls every aspect of the process of using the music. This works in some settings. Apple manages, in the context of very good, very closed hardware, and even in the itunes space, there are programs available for cracking the copy protected music, and the option of burning and re-ripping disks. For a world of user created content, the bar is higher, as you need to provide users with a way to upload and put content under a secure key, which opens up series of “known plaintext” attacks.

Adam Frisby has some useful comments in his blog here. The core issue is that, deep, cryptographic DRM of the digital assets being used in a virtual world trips over the need to let all clients in the world see that content. This is nothing new and has been discussed at length. Doing a deep DRM solution would require a closed client, a closed operating system, secured device drivers, and indeed proprietary hardware. Computers are, by their nature general purpose computing devices. Forcing them to behave as non general devices is hard, and most such schemes end up cracked. You can raise the difficulty in cracking such schemes, generally in direct cost of special purpose hardware, and end user complexity.

Policy, Software, services and the creation of virtual spaces

One last point, for a long, and complex set of topics. It is important to keep in mind that there are many layers and parts involved in this space. At the bottom, there is software, which creates a set of services, those services can be composed to simulate a space. Deploying these services, in various ways, allows people to create virtual space, with content, avatars, and interactions between them. Second Life today, consists of one set of services and spaces arranged to produce one style of virtual world.

OpenSim is a platform which allows the creation of services which can be arranged to be very similar to Second Life. It is, however, a software platform, not a virtual world. A reasonable analogy would be the difference between one of those Lego kits which comes with a pile of normal lego blocks and some special blocks, and a pretty picture of the cool car you can make.

OpenSim, is a collection of lego blocks. Some are very general purpose, some are quite specilaized. Out of the box, you can trivially build a standalone server which hosts a small number of regions. With slightly more effort you can hook up your region to one of several existing grids, and with increasingly large amounts of added effort, build grids, run shared asset servers, and provide more and more features which approach a complete virtual world.

Plenty of people have created isolated virtual spaces using OpenSim. Some have built grids, such as OSGrid, CentralGrid, and many others, listed here.

The actual creation of the specific services, the composition of those services into virtual spaces, and the management and policies of such a virtual space, is not set by OpenSim, but rather the people building these spaces and grids using the OpenSim platform. Some of these virtual spaces will form full up virtual worlds of their own. Others, will be used for very specific and narrow purposes, private pocket worlds, for the use of their creators. People will modify the code, extend it, add and delete features, and create variations as they build their grids and spaces.

Interoperation, is at its core, about creating an ecosystem, in which a great many people will innovate. OpenSim, as a platform, enable people to explore different ways of creating and managing virtual space. Many of the virtual spaces people build on top of OpenSim will probably end up interoperating. Some will do so in very broad ways, creating large grids with broad swaths of virtual land. Others will do so in very small ways, allowing a select group of regions to work together. Some parts of the ecosystem will thrive, others will die off. Successful innovations will be picked up and shared, while others will fail to thrive. How parts of this ecosystem connect up, and how broadly and deeply regions share users, data and policies will be determined, by the people who host the services, the people who use the services, and the choices they make. My goal for interoperation, is to make the set of possible choices as broad as possible, so that we can see as wide a set of ecosystems emerge.

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